Algorithms for Innovation 2016: Sources


 About 500,000 people a year undergo spinal surgery to fix bulging discs and broken vertebrae.

Source: Health Day

The New England Journal of Medicine published two conflicting studies about how to fix a condition where one vertebra slips down over the other: fuse or decompress?

Source: NEJM

The Cost of Our Behaviors:

70 percent of U.S. health care dollars are spent on conditions caused by patients' behavior and lifestyles. 

Source: Columbus CEO

36.5 percent of CDC estimates of obese Americans (2011-2014)

Source: CDC

81 percent more spent on obese adults' direct health care costs than healthy weight adults 

Source: State of Obesity

40 million Americans currently smoke

Source: CDC - Smoking

$35 estimates by the American Cancer Society that smokers will each pay in health care costs for each pack they smoke 


The New Patient Contract:

Obese patients have a 22X greater risk of complications after surgery

Source: US News and World Report

Current smokers have a 17 percent greater chance of dying after surgery

Source: Reuters

Those with high blood sugar had 44 percent more incidences of wound reopening 

Source: Health Day

Underweight patients have a 40 percent greater risk of death after surgery

Source: Health Day  


 What adds up to health?

Individual behavior: 40 percent 

Health Care: 10 percent 

Genetics: 30 percent 

Social and environmental factors: 20 percent

Source: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

What affects your health?

Chlorination has cut infant mortality by 75% since it was introduced in 1902.

In 1900, waterborne diseases accounted for 25% of infectious disease deaths.

Filtration reduced typhoid fever deaths by 46%.

Handwashing with soap reduces diarrhea morbidity by 44%.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University

The costs of asthma: 

$6.2 billion in 1990

10.5 million missed school days


$56 billion in 2007 

Source: ATS Journal

The Opioid Trail


Morphine extracted from opium as an analgesic 


Merck & Company begins commercial manufacturing of morphine 


Hypodermic needle developed by Dr. Alexander Wood to inject morphine 


German physician Eduard Livenstein describes morphine addiction 


U.S. Congress bans opium 


Hydrocodone approved for consumption in the U.S. by FDA 


Opioid antagonist/“overdose reversal drug” naloxone discovered 


Purdue Pharma sells $48 million in OxyContin its first year on the market 


Drug overdose deaths—38,329—surpass deaths from motor vehicle crashes—33,687 


U.S. doctors wrote 300 million painkiller prescriptions worth $24 billion 

Source: NIH

Source: PBS

Source: CNN

Source: JAMA


Source: Drug Adduction Support  


But finding a cure for the disease that affects his father, along with 400 million people worldwide, has eluded him.


Inventing and implanting the first artificial heart in 1982. 



How We Learn

46 percent of graduating med students don't feel prepared to be residents

80 percent of medicaol education takes place n inpatient settings 

80-90 percent of medicine takes place in outpatient settings 

Medical knowledge doubles every 50 years in 1950, and every 73 days in 2020 

Source: NIH -  Harvard Medical School study  

Source: NIH – University of Iowa study

Source: Utah Medical Association  


For the past three years, the cancer center has ranked in the top 5 percent for patient satisfaction among all academic medical centers in the nation.

Source: Press Ganey 

High Cost of Burnout

1 doctor commits suicide per day 

$250K to replace a family physician 

68 percent of family physicians would not pick their specialty again

Source: MedScape

Source: Practice Alert

Paperwork Fatigue

87 percent of physicians named paperwork and administration as No. 1 cause of work stress 

63 percent of doctors believed that EHRs made their jobs less efficient 

41 percent do not believe that EHRs actually improve patient care


Source: US Health Policy Gateway